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Liberated in Stillness and Motion
動靜皆自在(英文版)

作者:聖嚴法師

出版社: 法鼓文化

出版日期:2016年05月01日

語言:英文

系列別:法鼓全集英譯禪修

規格:平裝 / 22.8x15.2 cm / 180頁 / 單色印刷

商品編號:1123610031

ISBN:9789575987084

定價:NT$360

會員價:NT$324 (90折)

心田價:NT$281 (78折)

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Wandering Thoughts, Scattered Thoughts, and Mindfulness

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Given at Nung Chang Monastery, ?Taiwan, July 30, 1992

Whichever Chan meditation method you use, the mind should not hold on to, or be moved by, outside objects. Ultimately, when there is no object to hold onto and no mind that can be moved, you will accomplish the goal of meditation. But in the beginning and during Chan meditation, there is a mind that moves and functions; you understand your thoughts and actions, you observe them clearly, and are aware of the mind’s movements and functioning. However, as long as this continues, it is the deluded mind of attachment.

All Thoughts are Wandering Thoughts
A deluded mind is not quite the same as a mind with wandering thoughts. Within a deluded mind there are wandering thoughts and there is also mindfulness, though it is not always easy to distinguish between them. When you are aware of wandering thoughts, the mind that discovered them is also a wandering thought; in other words all thoughts are wandering thoughts. However, wandering thoughts also include the thoughts that involve the method. We call this “mindfulness” and the thoughts that interrupt you we call “scattered thoughts.” But whether mindful or scattered, any thought that arises belongs to deluded mind.
Therefore, all thoughts are wandering thoughts and any stray thoughts not on the practice method are wandering thoughts: you may think it is very beautiful outside and yearn to go take a look; or someone is noisy and being such a nuisance; or you hear pleasant music, feel fidgety, have unbearable thoughts, and so on. So initially, there is a mind that moves and functions—but ultimately, there is no mind that moves and functions. Many mistakenly think that at this stage there is no need to practice anymore. Actually, this is still not the goal and one must continue practicing.
While meditating one feels very relaxed, fresh, clean, undisturbed by scattered thoughts; it feels very comfortable. In such a state some people worry about being interrupted by scattered thoughts, find them troubling and dislike them. The sound of children, chirping sparrows, rainfall, are all very annoying to them. So when we discover wandering thoughts, we should immediately remind ourselves: the sound of children, birds, and rain are all normal; why be annoyed? As soon as we look at things this way, the mind that is annoyed will settle down; the environment is still there but the mind is no longer moved by it. This settling down is mindfulness.

Accept Scattered Thoughts
While meditating you may think: “This is awful. Why do I have these scattered thoughts? It is so annoying!” Or you may be bothered by pain in the legs or back, by hot weather, stuffy air, sweating, discomfort, everything is not feeling quite right. These are all scattered thoughts. The mind is especially impatient when scattered thoughts occur from discomfort caused by pain or hot weather. How do we deal with these scattered thoughts? If you already know they are scattered thoughts, then accept them, face them, don’t feel bad, and don’t mind whether you are feeling comfortable or not. Just return to the method and your mind will gradually settle.
Things in the environment that interfere with mindfulness are scattered thoughts; problems of the body that bother you are scattered thoughts; thoughts that rise and fall randomly are scattered thoughts. As soon as they occur face them one by one. If you are not annoyed by them, there will be no vexations and your mind will settle.

The True Mind is No Mind
When your mind finally settles, you may ask: “Where is my mind?” Actually, there is no such thing as mind. All thoughts are wandering thoughts and there is nothing to be called “the mind”; the true mind is “no-mind.” If your mind is still moving or functioning, you are having wandering thoughts, which are illusory. When you realize this, you can settle your mind at any time. It is best to let go of wandering thoughts as soon as you discover them. However, if you discover thoughts that you just cannot let go of, use a method such as counting breaths, reciting a buddha’s name, or some other method. Use a “unified wandering thought”—a method—to replace scattered thoughts; use a consistent and consecutive “wandering” thought called mindfulness to replace scattered thoughts.
Why are methods like counting the breath and reciting the names of the buddhas also wandering thoughts? Because these methods can be used to replace the other wandering thoughts that we can’t let go of or be free from. It is impossible for the ordinary mind to not hold onto something; it will always attach to something. When there is nothing to attach to, the mind is bored, panicky, frightened, not knowing what to do. Or it falls asleep. When we use the uniform wandering thoughts of meditation to replace disorderly scattered thoughts, the mind will settle naturally into mindfulness.
When the mind is ultimately settled, is there still the need to use a method? If one has no scattered thoughts, is not attached to a mind of delusion, and is unmoved by the environment, why would one need a method to settle the mind? At such a time, one does not need to consciously use the method, but this does not mean that the mind has departed from the method. If one is not using the method yet feels free in body and mind, clearly aware of the body-mind phenomena, is this no-mind? No, there is still a mind there! The mind is experiencing its own non-wandering and non-scattering. So although you are not using the method, and the mind, body, and environment do not disturb you, you are still clearly and fully aware, feeling clean and fresh, using the mind—even as there is no mind to use.

Not Troubled by Vexations after Enlightenment
While meditating, if your mind is disturbed by the environment or the body, you should know that these are wandering thoughts. When you are troubled by the conflicts and contradictions in the mind, you should know these are also wandering thoughts. As soon as you are aware of wandering thoughts and face them, they will no longer exist. However, unbroken mindfulness is still not enlightenment. After enlightenment, whether one is sitting or not, if vexations arise they will be like winter frost meeting the morning sun, or snowflakes falling into a fire—they will soon melt away. There may still be vexations in the mind but there will not be endless pain and suffering, and this is one who is enlightened. Are enlightened people completely liberated? Not necessarily! Fully liberated people have no vexations. People with shallow enlightenment may still have vexations, but they are clearly aware of the vexations once they arise, so they would not let vexations get out of hand and create a disaster.
How can you accomplish that? First, when you are unable to leave behind scattered thoughts and must hold onto something, use a meditation method. Then, when your mind is very settled to the point of being like still water, does that mean you are enlightened? No, but many people mistake this for enlightenment. At best, this is just deep concentration. After you come out of concentration, wandering thoughts may still arise, as well as scattered thoughts and vexations. Therefore, you need to persevere in practicing mindfulness, and will ultimately succeed.